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In this paper, thermal-wave diagnostics by means of laser infrared photothermal radiometry (PTR) have been used for quantitative nondestructive evaluation of cylindrical composite structures. To quantitatively evaluate the thermal-wave field of a cylindrical composite material, the Green function corresponding to the composite structure and the PTR measurement scheme has been developed and subsequently the thermal-wave field has been derived. Furthermore, the characteristics of the thermal-wave field for two cases of practical interest, i.e., a cylindrical material with a surface coating and a cylindrical tube filled with a low thermal-conductivity fluid medium inside, are discussed. Experimental results from a stainless-steel (AISI 302) cylinder are used to validate the theoretical model.