The structural stability and electrical properties of Sr2FeMoO6 under high pressure at room temperature have been studied using energy dispersive x-ray diffraction with synchrotron radiation and resistance and capacitance measurements. The x-ray diffraction results show that the structure of Sr2FeMoO6 remains stable up to 40 GPa. The equation of state of Sr2FeMoO6 is obtained from the V/V0–P relationship. The bulk modulus B0 and its first-order derivative B0′ of Sr2FeMoO6 were calculated based on the Birch–Murnaghan equation. The electrical resistance undergoes a metallic transition at about 2.1 GPa. The metallic transition may be caused by a change in the electronic structure induced by high pressure. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.