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A tool for the simulation of high frequency reflex klystrons is presented. Based on the Monte Carlo technique, this simulation includes loss mechanisms (due to the opacity of the grids) and takes into account the main peculiarities expected for device operation at millimeter and submillimeter wave frequencies. The tool has been used to study the effects of device parameters which are critical to the optimization of output power in a prototype 100 GHz micromachined structure based on a field emission electron source, namely, the electric field in the drift region and the grid distance. The results also show that this device can be used for direct generation of useful amounts of power at these frequencies. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.