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Role of reversible susceptibility in ferromagnetic hysteresis

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1 Author(s)
Schneider, C.S. ; Department of Physics, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402

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An equation of state based upon saturation magnetization, Ms, coercive field, Hc, and the reversible susceptibility function of magnetization is proposed for ferromagnetic hysteresis. Reversible susceptibility divided by the initial susceptibility is the anisotropy function of magnetization, χr, ranging from one in the demagnetized state to zero at saturation, and varying with magnetic history. Its dependence on scaled magnetization, m=M/Ms on the interval (-1,1) varies with material, allowing characterization of anisotropy classes. Precise measurements have been made of reversible susceptibility, initial and saturate magnetization curves, and loops for Orthonol™, annealed 3% nickel steel and as-received 1018 steel, representing crystals, isotropic polycrystals and composite ferromagnets, respectively. Magnetization change is the product of the reversible susceptibility, change in the applied field and the cooperative function due to domain interactions. This function is 1+βm for the virgin curve with half this slope from any reversal, where β=Ms/XiHc is the hysteresis coefficient. Variation of β for 1018 steel is due to distributed coercivities, and causes sigmoid B(H) curves. In the scaled field representation, where h=H/Hc, the cooperative function is 1/(1-hχr), a hyperbolic field dependence smeared by the anisotropy function. Constant anisotropy causes closed hysteresis loops, while variable anisotropy causes creeping of cycled asymmetric loops. In ferromagnetism, 1/χ=1/χr-h, normal scaled reluctivity is reduced from its reversible value by the scaled field.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:91 ,  Issue: 10 )