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Domain cooperation in ferromagnetic hysteresis

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1 Author(s)
Schneider, C.S. ; Physics Department, U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402

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We present precise experimental data suggesting that domains cooperate in ferromagnetic hysteresis. This model has potential applications in magnetostrictive transducers, transformer design, magnetoelastic effects and hysteresis in general. For an annealed 3% nickel steel alloy, we measured magnetic induction from the demagnetized state to near saturation, the reversal to near saturation and return branches from both these curves. Modeling variables include the coercive field, saturation magnetization, initial susceptibility and the hysteresis effective field. Magnetization is scaled to its saturation value and magnetic field to its coercive value in the direction of field change, and susceptibility is scaled to its reversible function. Scaled differential susceptibility increases from its reversible value exponentially with magnetization change from any reversal and decreases exponentially with decreasing slope to its reversible value at saturation. We define the slope of this exponential to be a hysteresis constant divided by the scaled effective field, and this dimensionless field is the square root of 2 for hysteresis loops of polycrystalline domains with fully nucleated walls. Rayleigh’s hysteresis constant, valid for heavily worked steels over a small region, transforms to our cooperative hysteresis constant at larger fields. For the saturate curve, the scaled effective field reaches a minimum less than 1 near the coercive field as domain interactions increase through wall nucleation and their local fields. Variation in the effective field causes hysteresis loops to creep upon cycling.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:89 ,  Issue: 2 )