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The effects of KrF pulsed laser and thermal annealing on the crystallinity and surface morphology of radiofrequency magnetron sputtered ZnS:Mn thin films deposited on Si

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6 Author(s)
Mastio, E.A. ; Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU, England ; Craven, M.R. ; Cranton, W.M. ; Thomas, C.B.
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Thin films of ZnS:Mn (800 nm) have been deposited by rf magnetron sputtering onto 100 mm diam n-type single-crystal (100) Si wafers. Specifically for use as active layers in thin film electroluminescent devices, the films need a postdeposition annealing treatment to enhance their luminescent properties. Inherent to the later process step are structural modifications of the phosphor layer which form the basis of this study. Both pulsed laser and thermal postannealing techniques have been investigated. Reported are the induced crystalline and surface morphology modifications via x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy analysis. As-grown and thermally treated films were cubic in nature and no significant grain growth or reorientation occurred while heating up to 700 °C. Pulsed (∼ 20 ns duration) KrF laser treated samples were annealed at power densities from 10.76 to 24.27 MW/cm2 under 10.34 bar of argon pressure. Beam quality and diagnostics were emphasized during laser irradiation with particular attention brought to energy and pulse duration measurements. It has been demonstrated that at the power densities used, a gradual phase transition from cubic to hexagonal is occurring while the average crystallite size remains constant. Surface analysis highlights concomitance between the phase transition and the smoothening of the irradiated surface. A one dimensional thermal model of the pulsed laser annealing process shows that a surface temperature for crystalline ZnS equating to the transition temperature should be reached at 17 MW/cm2, significantly below the numerically evaluated melting threshold of 30.5 MW/cm2. Combining experimental and theoretical results, it is concluded that the phase transition occur- s in the solid state. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:86 ,  Issue: 5 )