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Error control using retransmission schemes in multicast transport protocols for real-time media

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3 Author(s)
Pejhan, S. ; Networked Imaging Technol. Center, Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, NY, USA ; Schwartz, M. ; Anastassiou, D.

We analyze different retransmission (ARQ) schemes for error control in multicast protocols geared toward real-time, multimedia applications. We discuss why retransmission schemes are not inappropriate for such applications, but in fact can be quite effective. We present a quantitative analysis of such schemes, as well as simulation results, taking into account four different parameters (and not just the source throughput): (1) the probability of dropping a packet due to limited time for retransmissions; (2) the average time required to deliver a packet correctly to end receivers; (3) the number of times a packet will be retransmitted; and (4) the cost to the network, in terms of packet duplications, of retransmitting a packet. We reach the counter-intuitive conclusion that the optimum scheme, in terms of all four of the above parameters, in the most general scenarios (where several hosts with widely varying propagation delays and `quality of connections' are participating in the session) is to immediately retransmit packets-preferably multicast-upon reception of a NACK from any receiver. We also demonstrate, again through quantitative analysis, the circumstances under which it would be beneficial (as well as those under which it would be counter-productive) to multicast control messages in the hope of suppressing duplicates and preventing the source from being overwhelmed by control messages

Published in:

Networking, IEEE/ACM Transactions on  (Volume:4 ,  Issue: 3 )