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Mechanism of the negative nonlinear absorption effect in a five-level system of the Er3+ ion

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1 Author(s)
Maeda, Yoshinobu ; Department of Information and Control Engineering, Toyota Technological Institute, 2-12-1 Hisakata, Tempaku, Nagoya 468, Japan

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The dependence of the negative nonlinear absorption effect on the modulation degree and frequency, the sample temperature, and the erbium concentration was investigated in erbium yttrium aluminum garnet crystals. With a decreasing modulation degree, a reverse-phased wave form was obtained in the transmitted wave form at modulation frequency lower than 1 MHz. However, the transmitted laser wave form was asymmetrical at higher than 5 MHz and the time-dependent characteristics agreed with the lifetime of the 4S3/2 level in Er3+. At temperatures lower than 77 K, the negative nonlinear absorption effect weakened because the number of phonons decreased due to low temperature. It is considered that the Er3+ concentration dependence for modulation frequency depends on the lifetime of the 4S3/2 level. It has been confirmed that a mechanism of negative nonlinear absorption can be explained by calculating the rate equations based on an analytical model for a five-level system of the Er3+ ion. Experimental results agreed well with the calculated values. It is suggested that the effect was due to stimulated emission from the 4S3/2 level to the 4I13/2 level. © 1998 American Institute of Physics.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:83 ,  Issue: 3 )