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The production of periodic ripple or wavelike structure by Si+, Ne+, Ar+ and Xe+ high‐fluence ion bombardment at 20 and 30 keV of Si at 45° incidence angle and at target temperatures from 120 K to room temperature and observed by scanning electron and atomic force microscopy is described. Different species exhibit different behaviors at different temperatures with Xe+ producing transverse wave structures at room temperature and below, Ar+ producing more patchy ripple structures, and Ne+ and Si+ only producing wave structures at low temperatures. Possible reasons for the different behavior include implant ion incorporation which mediates flow and stress relief in the amorphized near‐surface layer. © 1995 American Institute of Physics.