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Operation of a single-photon–counting x-ray charge-coupled device camera spectrometer in a petawatt environment

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9 Author(s)
Stoeckl, C. ; Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 ; Theobald, W. ; Sangster, T.C. ; Key, M.H.
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The use of a single-photon–counting x-ray charge-coupled device (CCD) camera as an x-ray spectrometer is a well-established technique in ultrashort-pulse laser experiments. In single-photon–counting mode, the pixel value of each readout pixel is proportional to the energy deposited from the incident x-ray photon. For photons below 100 keV, a significant fraction of the events deposits all the energy in a single pixel. A histogram of the pixel readout values gives a good approximation of the x-ray spectrum. This technique requires almost no alignment, but it is very sensitive to signal-to-background issues, especially in a high-energy petawatt environment. Shielding the direct line of sight to the target was not sufficient to obtain a high-quality spectrum, for the experiments reported here the CCD camera had to be shielded from all sides with up to 10 cm of lead.

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Review of Scientific Instruments  (Volume:75 ,  Issue: 10 )