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Scientists and technologists are in the midst of an enormous social experiment, involving the growth of many new skill groups and the undertaking of very large and complex R and D projects. The boundaries of the engineering profession and a philosophy of organizing complex projects are discussed. Some effects on engineering education are traced. Differences between engineers and scientists are examined in the context of the ``research and development explosion.'' Traditional functional differences are being erased, but some differences in personal and social characteristics are described.