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Low-temperature optical characterization of single quantum nanostructures can reveal detailed information on structure-dependent properties of these materials. We describe the development of a unique laser-scanning optical microscope capable of low-temperature single molecule/particle imaging and spectroscopy. Making use of the magnification of a microscope objective, the laser- scanning scheme of the present microscope allows for high-repeatability imaging over large sample areas. The microscope is utilized to measure the low-temperature Raman scattering spectra of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes and single molecule fluorescence spectra of conjugated polymers. The developed low-temperature microscope can be applied to study a wide array of nanomaterials at a single particle level.