An instrument for measuring atmospheric nitrate radical (NO3) and dinitrogen pentoxide (N2O5) has been developed by a thermal conversion/laser-induced fluorescence (TC/LIF) technique. N2O5 is thermally decomposed and converted to NO3, which is measured by laser-induced fluorescence. In situ, fast-response, sensitive measurement of NO3/N2O5 is expected by use of LIF. In detecting NO3, dual-wavelength excitation at 622.96 and 618.81 nm was adopted to remove potential interference and to guarantee high selectivity. A high-power dye laser system was used as the source of excitation light. To measure ambient air directly, the NO3 detection cell was placed on the rooftop. The laser beam was guided by an optical fiber into the excitation cell. Transmittance of the laser beam was 80% for a 10 m long fiber. To calibrate the instrument, the series of thermal decomposition of N2O5 and the gas phase titration of NO3 by NO were conducted. NO3 reduction by adding NO was also applied to determine accurately the zero points of the detector. After optimization of conditions such as gate timing in photon counting and the settings of the N2O5 converter, the pre- sent detection limits of NO3 and N2O5 were determined to be 4 and 6 pptv, respectively, for the integration time of 10 min (signal-to-noise ratio=1). It was confirmed that the interference of NO2 on N2O5 detection is negligible, but can be significant for NO3 measurement when NO2 concentration is extremely high (≫100 ppbv). Measurement of N2O5 in ambient air was made in the urban area of Tokyo, Japan. Observed data demonstrated the capacity of the TC/LIF instrument with a powerful dye laser and a single-path excitation cell for ambient measurements. In this article, we focus on the instrumentation and characterization.