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An instrumental system is described for detecting and sorting single fluorescent particles such as microspheres, bacteria, viruses, or even smaller macromolecules in a flowing liquid. The system consists of microfluidic chips (biochips), computer controlled high voltage power supplies, and a fluorescence microscope with confocal optics. The confocal observation volume and detection electro-optics allow measurements of single flowing fluorescent particles. The output of the avalanche photodiode (single photon detector) is coupled to a real-time photon-burst detection device, which output can address the control of high voltage power supplies for sorting purposes. Liquid propulsion systems like electro-osmotic flow and plain electric fields to direct the particles through the observation volume have been tested and evaluated. The detection and real-time sorting of fluorescent microspheres are demonstrated. Applications of these biochips for screening of bacteriophages-type biolibraries are briefly discussed.