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An ultrasonic sensor that simultaneously measures temperature and viscosity of molten materials at very high temperature is described. This sensor has applications as a process monitor in melters. The sensor is based on ultrasonic shear reflectance at the solid–melt interface. A delay line probe is constructed using refractory materials. A change in the time of flight within the delay line is used to measure the temperature. The results obtained from this sensor on various calibration glass samples demonstrate a measurement range of 100–20 000 P for the viscosity and 25–1500 °C for the temperature. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.