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A new robot‐performance calibration system based on tracking multilaser trilateration has been developed. To realize 1 μm coordinate accuracy, a beam‐deflecting tracking mechanism with both a ball‐seated bearing and a spherically shaped cat’s eye retroreflector whose refractive index is 2.0 has been developed. The coordinate error and the repeatability of a commercial industrial robot have been verified by the system we developed in a two‐dimensional plane.