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The diffraction investigations of polycrystalline materials allow one to receive information about microdeformations of the crystalline lattice. It is known that the chemical activity of solid states increases as a result of mechanical deformation. The x‐ray diffraction experiments contribute to the studies of this increase. There is no doubt that the use of SR gives advantages to these diffraction experiments over the traditional sources of radiation. The high intensity of SR allows one to decrease the time necessary for a diffraction pattern to be exposed and to investigate the mechanical deformation in situ. A new device for the study of polycrystalline materials in shock compression using x‐ray diffraction of SR was designed. This device has some advantages over the old one. It is worth noting, first of all, that we used an automatic machine for a very fast change of the samples (10 s). Just as before, the shock compression was performed by a steel projectile with a spherical end. We used flat polycrystalline samples. At the moment of collision the stresses achieved several kBars. Detection electronics allow the diffraction patterns with a resolution time of about 1 ms to be received.