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Improved one‐tier and two‐tier designs for a high‐pressure–low‐pressure (HPLP) apparatus are described together with some of their recent applications. These instruments are used for surface analysis and in situ monitoring of catalytic reactions on small samples with a geometrical surface area of 1 cm2. Catalytic reactions are studied over a wide range of pressures (10-8–105 Torr) and temperatures (273–1273 K). The apparatus incorporates surface analysis methods such as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), High Resolution Electron Energy Loss Spectrometry (HREELS), and 14C‐radiotracer labeling in addition to Low Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED), Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), and mass spectrometry. Facilities are also available for argon sputter‐ion cleaning, deposition of adsorbates by evaporation, and coverage calibration by means of a thickness monitor.