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In this paper, we study the optimal training and data transmission strategies for block fading multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems with feedback. We consider both the channel gain feedback (CGF) system and the channel covariance feedback (CCF) system. Using an accurate capacity lower bound as a figure of merit that takes channel estimation errors into account, we investigate the optimization problems on the temporal power allocation to training and data transmission as well as the training length. For CGF systems without feedback delay, we prove that the optimal solutions coincide with those for nonfeedback systems. Moreover, we show that these solutions stay nearly optimal even in the presence of feedback delay. This finding is important for practical MIMO training design. For CCF systems, the optimal training length can be less than the number of transmit antennas, which is verified through numerical analysis. Taking this fact into account, we propose a simple yet near optimal transmission strategy for CCF systems, and derive the optimal temporal power allocation over pilot and data transmission.