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The efficiency of high-frequency destruction of microbubble-based contrast agent is limited by the high pressure threshold, while the difficulty of spatially confining destruction induced by low-frequency excitation to a small sample volume potentially increases the risk of adverse bioeffects. The dual-frequency excitation method involves the simultaneous transmission of 2 high-frequency sinusoids to produce an envelope signal at the difference frequency. The envelope signal provides the low-frequency driving force for oscillating the contrast-agent microbubbles to improve destruction efficiency, while the destruction sample volume remains small due to the high frequency of the carrier signal. Experimental results indicate that dual-frequency excitation consistently results in destruction of contrast-agent microbubbles that is superior to using a tone burst at the carrier frequency. With 1 ??s pulse length, the acoustic pressure threshold for 95% microbubble destruction markedly reduces from 2.6 MPa to 0.9 MPa when the dual-frequency pulse having envelope frequency of 3 MHz is utilized instead of the 10-MHz sinusoidal pulse. In addition, the dual-frequency pulse having lower envelope frequency generally provides more efficient microbubble destruction, especially when the excitation waveform is long enough to guarantee sufficient envelope component.
Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:56 , Issue: 5 )
Date of Publication: May 2009