In this article, we present 193 nm lithography at a k1 factor of 0.37–0.40 and discuss several topics important to 100 nm logic such as optical proximity correction (OPC), control of critical dimension (CD) variation, and lowering of the mask error factor (MEF). In OPC, the best correction results can be achieved by developing accurate models and using reasonable segmentation rules. The technique of variable-dose exposures is demonstrated as a means to reduce interfield CD variation once the cause is known and can be characterized. A more than 30% reduction in CD variation is realized for variation caused by temperature nonuniformity in hot plates. The concept of two dimensional (2D) MEF is introduced to describe situations at feature ends. Higher numerical aperture or more effectively, quadrupole illumination, can be used to lower 1D and 2D MEFs. We also explore the technique of dipole illumination, which may be a candidate for taking optical lithography to k1≪0.35. © 2001 American Vacuum Society.