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This paper reviews current technological developments in polarization engineering and the control of the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) for InxGa1- xN-based quantum-well active regions, which are generally employed in visible LEDs for solid-state lighting applications. First, the origin of the QCSE in III-N wurtzite semiconductors is introduced, and polarization-induced internal fields are discussed in order to provide contextual background. Next, the optical and electrical properties of InxGa1- xN-based quantum wells that are affected by the QCSE are described. Finally, several methods for controlling the QCSE of InxGa1- xN-based quantum wells are discussed in the context of performance metrics of visible light emitters, considering both pros and cons. These strategies include doping control, strain/polarization field/electronic band structure control, growth direction control, and crystalline structure control.