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The capacity for real-time synchronization and coordination is a common ability among trained musicians performing a music score that presents an interesting challenge for machine intelligence. Compared to speech recognition, which has influenced many music information retrieval systems, music's temporal dynamics and complexity pose challenging problems to common approximations regarding time modeling of data streams. In this paper, we propose a design for a real-time music-to-score alignment system. Given a live recording of a musician playing a music score, the system is capable of following the musician in real time within the score and decoding the tempo (or pace) of its performance. The proposed design features two coupled audio and tempo agents within a unique probabilistic inference framework that adaptively updates its parameters based on the real-time context. Online decoding is achieved through the collaboration of the coupled agents in a Hidden Hybrid Markov/semi-Markov framework, where prediction feedback of one agent affects the behavior of the other. We perform evaluations for both real-time alignment and the proposed temporal model. An implementation of the presented system has been widely used in real concert situations worldwide and the readers are encouraged to access the actual system and experiment the results.
Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:32 , Issue: 6 )
Date of Publication: June 2010