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Lateral dopant profiling in semiconductors by force microscopy using capacitive detection

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4 Author(s)
Abraham, David W. ; IBM Research Division, T. J. Watson Research Center, P. O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 ; Williams, C. ; Slinkman, J. ; Wickramasinghe, H.K.

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Recently, high‐resolution mapping of dopant concentration has been demonstrated with the scanning capacitance microscope (SCM). Here, we demonstrate that a similar measurement can be made with the atomic force microscope using the previously demonstrated capacitive force sensing mode. By applying appropriate bias to the force tip, depletion‐induced capacitive variation is mapped over regions of varying dopant density. This method has a predicted sensitivity comparable to the SCM, and in addition allows imaging of trapped charge, as well as an independent measurement of the surface topography. Results of first‐order model calculations are presented which give estimates as to the limits in sensitivity and resolution of this method

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Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B: Microelectronics and Nanometer Structures  (Volume:9 ,  Issue: 2 )