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InP layers were grown on (100) GaAs substrates by gas‐source molecular beam epitaxy and then were annealed by the rapid thermal annealing (RTA) method. The effects of annealing time and temperature on crystalline structure were studied by double‐crystal x‐ray diffraction. Significant improvement in crystalline quality was observed, due to RTA. The smallest linewidth was 315 s of arc for the 2‐μm‐thick layers upon annealing at 940 °C for 10 s. Using lower temperatures and longer annealing times, the linewidths remained broader but the loss of phosphorus was reduced.