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A new method for measuring cable insulation layer parameters and its principle are presented. In order to facilitate the research of testing and measuring cable insulation layer parameters, the system based on computer vision is designed using Visual C++. After the amplification coefficient of microscope is calibrated, image is captured by CCD camera. Then, for the sake of better detecting the image edge information, non-linear median filter technology of characteristic direction is used to remove noise; at the same time, advanced and applicable Otsu method of segmentation is applied to implement background segmentation; by means of Sobel operator, the cable image edge is extracted. Finally, in order to fit the shape of cable image edge, the least square method is introduced to this system, and then cable insulation layer parameters are measured by using the amplification coefficient of microscope. The measurement system has many advantages such as more simple operation, higher degree of automation, higher precision, etc. On the basis of this measuring system, a lot of cable insulation layers were tested, and experimental results show that this system is a feasible method for measuring cable insulation parameters.