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In this paper, variation in magnetoresistance (MR) by transition-metal (TM) doping in magnetite (Fe3O4) has been investigated. The samples (TxFe3-xO4, T = V, and Cr) were polycrystalline and prepared as thin films by a sol-gel method. As the TM composition (x) increases, the MR strength is reduced but the reduction rate with x differs significantly for the two TM-doping cases. For the V-substituted samples, the MR is reduced rapidly with x and no significant MR is detected above x = 0.11. On the other hand, the Cr-substituted samples exhibit the MR effect up to x = 0.49. Such difference in MR strength between the two TM-doping cases is attributable to the difference in the intrinsic properties of the ternary ferrites such as electronic structure and carrier spin polarization.