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In this paper, we describe an autonomous navigation system for a mobile robot using randomly distributed passive RFID tags. Furthermore, in order to acquire the robot's location and orientation precisely, we developed the read-time model. According to the conventional approaches, more than two readers are required to estimate the orientation of the robot when using a passive RFID system. With our proposed method, a mobile robot is able to estimate its location and orientation accurately with a randomly distributed arrangement of RFID tags. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed method can successfully do both.