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Judd-Ofelt analysis is performed on measurements of bulk samples of Tm3+- and Ho3+-doped tellurite glass from which the host-dependent Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters are extracted. These have then been used to calculate the radiative rates and branching ratios in this particular material system. A rate-equation approach is then used to model an experimentally realized ~2.1 μm Tm3+/Ho3+ codoped tellurite fiber laser and extract values of the energy transfer and upconversion rate parameters in TeO2-ZnO-Na2O (TZN) glass. Excellent agreement is found between simulated and experimental data, which indicates the validity of the approach.