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Designing and implementing operating system for wireless embedded systems powered by energy harvesters is a challenging task. Conventional operating systems require lot of system resources thus they are not applicable to these highly energy constrained devices. This paper discusses the requirements, design challenges, architecture of an operating system for energy autarkic wireless embedded systems. The paper is divided in two parts. First part of the paper gives an introduction to wireless embedded systems powered by energy harvester. Two application scenarios are presented here. The second part of the paper discusses the problematic of the operating system design for these devices.