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A simple extension of a previously reported object recognition technique has been used to implement a six-degree-of-freedom position/orientation estimator for the measurement of knee replacement motion from two-dimensional (2-D) fluoroscopic images. Computer modeling studies and controlled mechanical tests were performed to assess the accuracy of the technique. The results indicate that knee rotations can be measured with an accuracy of approximately one degree and that sagittal plane translations can be measured with an accuracy of approximately 0.5 mm. The measurement technique is uniquely well suited for performing dynamic kinematic measurements on individuals with knee replacements, and for performing comparative studies among subjects with different designs of knee replacements.