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The equations of motion of the Euler–Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories are reformulated using the nonlocal differential constitutive relations of Eringen [International Journal of Engineering Science 10, 1–16 (1972)]. The equations of motion are then used to evaluate the static bending, vibration, and buckling responses of beams with various boundary conditions. Numerical results are presented using the nonlocal theories to bring out the effect of the nonlocal behavior on deflections, buckling loads, and natural frequencies of carbon nanotubes.