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Experimental study of the relationship between temperature and adhesive forces for low-alloyed steel, stainless steel, and titanium using atomic force microscopy in ultrahigh vacuum

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5 Author(s)
Gaard, A. ; Department of Mechanical- and Materials Engineering, Karlstad University, SE-651 88, Karlstad, Sweden ; Krakhmalev, P. ; Bergstrom, J. ; Hirvonen Grytzelius, J.
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Dry sliding contact between metallic surfaces is often associated with high surface temperatures due to frictional heating and adhesive wear, resulting in high friction and severe surface damage. In the present research, the dependence of adhesive forces on temperature, for commercial low-alloyed steel, stainless steel, and pure titanium, was investigated in ultrahigh vacuum at elevated temperatures using atomic force microscopy. It was found that adhesive forces increased as the temperature increased. Room-temperature values of adhesive forces decreased in the order Ti, stainless steel, and low-alloyed steel, which agreed with the values of the electron work function measured by a Kelvin probe. The findings correlate well with results observed for the same materials using conventional macroscopic tribotesters.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:103 ,  Issue: 12 )