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Subsurface modifications in indium phosphide induced by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses: A study on the formation of periodic ripples

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6 Author(s)
Couillard, M. ; Brockhouse Institute for Materials Research, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4M1, Canada ; Borowiec, A. ; Haugen, H.K. ; Preston, J.S.
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We use cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy to study the damage induced below the surface of indium phosphide (InP) samples by single and multiple femtosecond laser pulses with a photon energy lower than the InP band gap. Single-pulse irradiation creates a ∼100 nm deep crater with a resolidified surface layer consisting of quasiamorphous indium phosphide. The resolidified layer has a thickness of ∼60 nm at the center and extends laterally beyond the edge of the crater rim. Exposure to multiple femtosecond pulses of 2050 nm center wavelength results in the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) with two different periods, one (∼1730 nm) less than but close to the laser wavelength and one (∼470 nm) four times smaller. Segregation beneath both types of ripples leads to the formation of In-rich particles embedded in the resolidified surface layer. Extended defects are detected only below the center of the multiple-pulse crater and their distribution appears to be correlated with the LIPSS modulation. Finally, LIPSS formation is discussed in terms of the observed subsurface microstructures.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:101 ,  Issue: 3 )

Date of Publication:

Feb 2007

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