In this work, we present the results obtained in fabrication and characterization of single-crystalline lead titanate nanowires synthesized by surfactant-free hydrothermal method at 200 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, selected-area electron diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. The results show that the products have a tetragonal perovskite structure without any other impurity phase, which are made up of a large quantity of nanowires with uniform diameters of about 12 nm and lengths reaching up to 5 μm, and the growth of nanowires is generally along the  direction. XPS result shows that the binding energy of Ti2p(3/2) core level peak for PbTiO3 nanowires is larger than that of the corresponding ceramics and leads to the larger spin-orbit splitting (Δ[2p(3/2)-2p(1/2)]) for Ti2p. Raman studies show that the vibration modes of nanowires redshifted and broadened, which have shorter phonon lifetime compared to that of bulk materials. A blue light emission peaking at about 471 nm (2.63 eV) is observed at room temperature, oxygen vacancies are responsible for the luminescence in PbTiO3 nanowires. The band gap energy for - PbTiO3 nanowires was about 4.15 eV.