The influence of annealing on the morphological, structural, and optical properties of ZnO:Tb thin films on Si substrate grown by magnetron cosputtering is investigated. It has been found that the ZnO:Tb thin films with structures of tetrapod and screwlike nanorod are formed after annealing at temperature of 950 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and Raman analyses prove that the tetrapod-aiguille zinc oxide (T-A-ZnO) and the screwlike nanorods are composed of Zn, Tb, and O elements. The photoluminescence spectra of the ZnO:Tb thin films with the T-A-ZnO structure and the screwlike nanorods are featured with two ultraviolet emission peaks and one strong green emission band, and the photoluminescence intensity increases with increasing annealing temperature. The surface defects in the T-A-ZnO structure and the screwlike nanorods are considered to be responsible for enhanced green emission in the annealed ZnO:Tb thin films.