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Numerical simulation of heat transfer and fluid flow in coaxial laser cladding process for direct metal deposition

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3 Author(s)
Qi, Huan ; Center for Laser Aided Intelligent Manufacturing, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 ; Mazumder, Jyotirmoy ; Ki, Hyungson

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The coaxial laser cladding process is the heart of direct metal deposition (DMD). Rapid materials processing, such as DMD, is steadily becoming a tool for synthesis of materials, as well as rapid manufacturing. Mathematical models to develop the fundamental understanding of the physical phenomena associated with the coaxial laser cladding process are essential to further develop the science base. A three-dimensional transient model was developed for a coaxial powder injection laser cladding process. Physical phenomena including heat transfer, melting and solidification phase changes, mass addition, and fluid flow in the melt pool, were modeled in a self-consistent manner. Interactions between the laser beam and the coaxial powder flow, including the attenuation of beam intensity and temperature rise of powder particles before reaching the melt pool were modeled with a simple heat balance equation. The level-set method was implemented to track the free surface movement of the melt pool, in a continuous laser cladding process. The governing equations were discretized using the finite volume approach. Temperature and fluid velocity were solved for in a coupled manner. Simulation results such as the melt pool width and length, and the height of solidified cladding track were compared with experimental results and found to be reasonably matched.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:100 ,  Issue: 2 )