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This article describes requirements and fundamental technologies to enable the provision of a new generation network beyond the Internet and the next generation network, both of which are based on IP protocols. Although the Internet has grown into a social infrastructure and the NGN will replace legacy telephone networks and cellular phone networks in the near future, it is time to start R&D on revolutionary network technologies and clean-slate designed architecture beyond the IP structure. Here some R&D activities for a new generation network are shown. This article is a revised version of the author's presentation in the First ITU-T Kaleidoscope Academic Conference held in Geneva last May.