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A high-reliability, high-precision, small volume of insulation on-line monitoring system for high-voltage cables is developed. Without changing the connection of original power system, the aging state of cable insulation is evaluated by multiple parameters relevant to insulation to improve the reliability of monitoring. Constructed experiment is carried out to verify the performance of the monitoring system. The main modules and functions of the system were tested. Experimental results show that the system has better measuring accuracy and an effective means is provided to monitor the changes of cable insulation parameters. To void the influence of data disturbance and periodic change, exponential smoothing method is introduced to extract the trend of monitoring data and improve the reliability of diagnosis.