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Photoacoustic (PA) measurement is noninvasive. We used the PA technique to measure the viscoelasticity of red blood cells (RBCs) to determine whether it could elucidate mechanical characteristics at a cellular level. A single-pulse laser beam was used as the light source to generate a PA signal. A “thin” glass was used as an acoustical impedance medium to form the attenuation signal. From the amplitude attenuation curves of the signals of a control RBC group and some glutaraldehyde-treated RBC groups, we obtained the decay times. As decay time is equal to the viscosity-elasticity ratio, we could obtain the viscoelasticity characteristics of the RBC. The PA technique is a simple, real-time, and noninvasive way to acquire the viscoelastic properties at a cellular level.