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Modules have been widely used in development of various robots including re-configurable robots and snake-like robots. To build robotic systems more flexibly and quickly with low costs of manufacturing and maintenance, we have developed two basic types, which are called T-type and I-type, of robotic joint modules with one degree of freedom for general purpose. The modules are designed to be compact, light-weighted and self-contained. A variety of robotic systems may be constructed easily using these modules. In this paper, the mechanical design, the control system including the hardware and software of the joint modules are described. In addition, the conceptual design of a few novel robots is presented, showing how new robots can be built using these basic joint modules in practical applications. The new robots include a bio-inspired robot that can climb poles, trusses and trees, a biped walking robot with only six active joints, and a two-wheeled mobile robot with a caster.