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Proton effects in charge-coupled devices

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3 Author(s)
Hopkinson, G.R. ; Sira Ltd., Chislehurst, UK ; Dale, C.J. ; Marshall, P.W.

Basic mechanisms and ground-test data for radiation effects in solid-state imagers are reviewed, with a special emphasis on proton-induced effects on silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs). For the proton fluxes encountered in the space environment, both transient ionization and displacement damage effects arise from single-particle interactions. In the former case, individual proton tracks will be seen; in the latter, dark-current spikes (or hot pixels) and trapping states that cause degradation in charge-transfer efficiency will be observed. Proton-induced displacement damage effects on dark current and charge transfer are considered in detail, and the practical implications for shielding, device hardening, and ground testing are discussed

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Nuclear Science, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 2 )