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Measurements of the SEE environment from sea level to GEO using the CREAM and CREDO experiments

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3 Author(s)
C. S. Dyer ; Space Dept., Defence Res. Agency, Farnborough, UK ; A. Sims ; C. Underwood

The cosmic radiation environment and activation monitor (CREAM) and cosmic radiation environment and dosimetry (CREDO) experiments have now been employed in a wide range of flight situations including aircraft, Space Shuttle, UOSAT spacecraft, and most recently the advanced photovoltaics and electronics experiment (APEX) and Space Technology Research Vehicle (STRV) satellites. Results from this unique coverage of the environment will be given ranging from the atmosphere, through the radiation belts to geostationary orbit. Collateral data on upsets have also been obtained for a number of situations. Comparisons are made with standard environment and SEE models and show significant deficiencies and discrepancies. These include time variations in the trapped particles, new radiation belts, secondary particle effects in both heavy spacecraft and the atmosphere, and overestimates of cosmic ray and solar flare heavy ions. The need for both further developments in the models and a comprehensive programme of flight experiments is emphasized

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IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science  (Volume:43 ,  Issue: 2 )