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The Advanced Visible and Near Infrared Radiometer type 2 (AVNIR-2) on-orbit radiometric performance has been improved through the comparison of cross-calibration and onboard lamp calibration. We proposed a new cross-calibration scheme which uses top-of-atmosphere reflectance functions of satellite zenith angle at temporally and spatially stable ground sites. Each function is made from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 500-m resolution data over 16 days, which includes AVNIR-2 observation dates. The results showed that the radiances of AVNIR-2 bands 1 (463 nm), 2 (560 nm), and 3 (652 nm) agreed with the radiances of Aqua and Terra MODIS within 3% accuracy (standard deviation of 2%). AVNIR-2 band 4 (821 nm) had a difference of about 7% (AVNIR-2< MODIS) due to water-vapor absorption which could explain more than half of the 7%. Using many samples from this scheme, we found dependences of radiometric calibration errors within the field of view (FOV) and for different gain modes. The lamp calibration system onboard AVNIR-2 unveiled these dependences over the FOV and time. Furthermore, for the gain mode, consistent results could be retrieved using the cross-calibration scheme. The retrieved radiometric correction factors (over the FOV and gain modes) have been applied to the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency AVNIR-2 processing scheme. The subsequent validation of the correction showed, for polar snow areas, an improved radiometric performance over the entire FOV.