Variable-temperature atomic force microscopy, piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), and scanning surface potential microscopy were combined to determine the temperature response of polarization and screening charge on BaTiO3(100) surfaces. The ferroelectric-domain induced surface corrugations and piezoelectric response decrease with temperature and disappear at the Curie temperature. The temperature dependence of the PFM contrast is explained within the framework of the Ginzburg–Devonshire theory with the effect of a dielectric tip-surface gap taken into account. The temperature dependence of the surface potential contrast is ascribed to the interplay between the release of the screening charges with temperature and their slow relaxation. The results indicate that surface potential polarity is reversed relative to that expected from polarization orientation on BaTiO3 in ambient. © 2001 American Institute of Physics.