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This paper presents cell-layer-scale multidomain dynamic 1-D proton-exchange-membrane fuel-cell (PEMFC) stack model using VHDL-AMS modeling language. The model covers three main fuel-cell energy domains: electrical, fluidic, and thermal. The performance and advantages of the VHDL-AMS language are shown in the first part. Then, by means of the ??top-down?? modeling approach, the electrical-, fluidic-, and thermal-domain models of the PEMFC stack are addressed in three separate parts. Simulation results are then compared with a Ballard 1.2-kW NEXA fuel-cell system and show a great agreement with experimental data. This complex multidomain VHDL-AMS stack model, containing more than 25 000 state variables and only few empirical coefficients (four parameters identified on the polarization curve), can be used for fuel-cell system components design and also for real-time applications. Real-time simulation is a key issue in many applications such as system control and hardware-in-the-loop applications. Moreover, this fuel-cell stack model is suitable and can be parameterized for all kinds of PEMFC including water-cooled and metal bipolar plates stacks: Only the cooling fluid and materials properties have to be changed.
Date of Publication: June 2010