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A three-wave FDTD approach to surface scattering with applications to remote sensing of geophysical surfaces

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5 Author(s)
Wong, P.B. ; Center for Radar Astron., Stanford Univ., CA, USA ; Leonard Tyler, G. ; Baron, J.E. ; Gurrola, E.M.
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A major difficulty in physical interpretation of radio wave scattering from geophysical surfaces is the lack of detailed information on the signatures of geologically plausible discrete objects. Although the aggregate response will never be dominated by any single object, differences in the population of discrete objects on or near the surface (their sizes and shapes, for example) can change the character of a radio echo markedly. When the average surface is modelled as a flat, homogeneous half-space, the field that “drives” the scattering process is a composite consisting of the incident plane wave and the reflected and transmitted plane waves, all of which are known quantities; the total field can then be defined as the sum of the driving field and the scattered field. When a discrete object is near the surface, the total field can be calculated using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) techniques, and the scattered near field can be calculated accordingly. The Green's functions for electric and magnetic currents above and below the surface, obtained by Sommerfeld theory and employed in conjunction with Huygens' principle, transform the local scattered fields to the far field. The FDTD implementation accommodates discrete lossy dielectric and magnetic scatterers in the vicinity of a dielectric surface; extension to a lossy half-space is straightforward. Two-dimensional results for scattering from perfectly conducting circular cylinders above and below a dielectric surface agree with moment method solutions within a few percent. Results for scattering from a dielectric wedge exhibit expected forward diffraction and internal reflection phenomena

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 4 )