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Maximum likelihood estimation and Cramer-Rao bounds for direction of arrival parameters of a large sensor array

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2 Author(s)
Satish, A. ; Sch. of Electr. Eng., Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN, USA ; Kashyap, R.L.

A maximum likelihood (ML) method is developed for estimation of direction of arrival (DOA) and associated parameters of narrowband signals based on the Taylor's series expansion of the inverse of the data covariance matrix R for large M, M specifying number of sensors in the array. The stochastic ML criterion function can thus be simplified resulting in a computationally efficient algorithm for DOA estimation. The more important result is the derivation of asymptotic (large M) expressions for the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRB) on the covariance matrix of all unknown DOA angles for the general D source case. The derived bound is expressed explicitly as a function of snapshots, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensors, separation, and correlation between signal sources. Using the condition of positive definiteness of the Fisher information matrix a resolution criterion is proposed which gives a tight lower limit on the minimum resolvable angle

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:44 ,  Issue: 4 )