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The inherent stochastic character of single-electron tunneling can be effectively utilized for creating novel electronic circuits having high-level functions. As a sample application, we present a stochastic-response circuit for implementing Boltzmann machine neurons. The circuit consists of a single-electron circuit operating under unstable conditions. It can produce an output of a random 1–0 bit stream with the probability for an output of 1 controlled by an input signal—a task that is difficult for conventional circuits using ordinary electronic devices. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.