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High-index proton-exchanged waveguides in Z-cut LiNbO3 with undegraded nonlinear optical coefficients

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3 Author(s)
Rams, J. ; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Departamento de Física de Materiales C–IV, Canto Blanco, E-28049 Madrid, Spain ; Olivares, J. ; Cabrera, J.M.

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A method is described for producing high quality optical waveguides on Z-cut LiNbO3 substrates by proton exchange in pure benzoic acid vapor. Either α- or β-phase guides are obtained by varying the exchange temperature (within the 250–375 °C range) and/or the treatment duration (between 15 min and 24 h). The method presents definitive advantages with regards to common immersion methods. For both α- and β-phase guides the d33 nonlinear optical coefficient is 90% of the substrate value, and their optical losses are below 0.35 dB/cm. This is the first report on β-phase guides with almost undegraded nonlinear optical coefficients. © 1997 American Institute of Physics.

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Applied Physics Letters  (Volume:70 ,  Issue: 16 )